Friday, July 22, 2022

Queen of France

The Young Rulers: James III of Scotland & Margaret of Denmark

James III and Margaret of Scotland
James III and Margaret:
King & Queen of Scotland

Arranged Marriage, by King Charles VII of France.

A marriage set in stone: James was born in 1451 & Margaret in 1456. At less than five yrs of age, there was talk that she was set to marry James.
After clarity of debts owned to Denmark were realized, Charles VII from the house of Valois, made his political suggestion for the two to marry.
The 13-yr old bride Margaret, became
the "Queen of the Scots".
Stirling Castle
Stirling Castle
Moving away from Denmark, the only daughter of Christian I and Agnes (Dorethea) Brandenburg, headed to Stirling castle, to rule her new kingdom, "Scotland". Which indirectly gained Orkney, Shetland, Hebrides, and the Isle of Man... all due to her non-paid dowry. The original dowry of 60,000 Florins, which also included that any former debts that Scotland owed Denmark were to be cleared. (long-held debts from James and other past Scottish Kings).
Not so fast though, while Margaret of Denmark was newly given 1/3 of all Scottish Kingdom income, for her side of the marriage deal. Her father Christian of Denmark did not pay the dowry, only 2,000. So, in essence James was stinted 58,000 Florins and ended up with islands instead. Perhaps very confusing to James, with both the Kings of France and Denmark pushing him to marry.
It was not a happy marriage, though, they lived perched up and away in their different castles.
Military styled Castles on steep cliffs, without extensive gardens.
Edinburgh Castle
He lived most of the time in Edinburgh Castle which overlooks the city, and she preferred her mountain-top view while raising her children to be at Stirling, high above the rest of the world in the countryside.
Somehow, as the years have passed on, generation to generation, we know that the married couple... apparently copulated only for propagation purposes. A lack-luster love pairing to say the least, a financial coup of Scottish Income for Margaret and a land claim for James.
Nothing to do with her beauty or attitude? Love lost? She wore very expensive haute couture to impress. Perhaps one of them was "gay" or "frigid" or the business of being King was just filled with constant troubles.
James was only 9 years old when his father died, crowned "King of the Scats". Then he had another 8 yrs to acquire debt. The marriage to Margaret was normally to be his financial trump card, and at the age of 17, he was to be "in the money" again. Yet, It was just those missing Florins that probably nagged at him and her, the missing Rhenish florins. Christian I to blame, turning her dowry into a near nothing, only the "No war state with Denmark" with the "keep-allow" of the outer islands.
King of Scotland, James II
Father to James:
King of Scotland,
James II
King of Scotland, James III
King of Scotland, James III
All that the "impoverished" Denmark could do, was drop their Military push on those outer islands. Possibly Denmark had planned to stop fighting over those islands and forfeit them anyway, plus Christian I, didn't have to pay the dowry.
James may have appeared like the new King on the block, to many people though, the islands making the country of Scotland its largest ever. They probably even had to change all of their maps, costing even more money.
Surely, England would have become very interested though, by the new Monster-Sized "Scotland". Where to next? Would the Scots take England or Ireland? All plausible. It was a historical land grab, that provoked World interest.
Ross Scotland
Ross, Scotland

Old Earl Macdonald & the Land of "Ross"

As the yrs past, James wanted his 2nd son to become the Earl of Ross. A good location, so James called Macdonald to "treason." However, his wife Margaret, Queen of the Scots, made the political decision, to allow Macdonald his freedom, his lands & continued status.
A further thorn for their marriage. Why did she side with a stranger & forfeit her son's rights? I can only presume, she liked to mingle with the social classes, and didn't want to make any waves against "the party group of nobles". Plus, going into battle in the North was expensive, and possibly she was told by her father in Denmark, to "maintain the peace".
The Unusual Gold Coin: "The Unicorn's" were Minted.
Unicorn Coins

Yet, there was
"The Disfavor of James"

His action against Macdonald created an uproar & Margaret had to plea for the rights of James, for him to maintain his power of rule. All of which may have pushed her too far. The two became more estranged, and her religious self more pious. While his city was Edinburgh and her Castle was Stirling. "City & County" a marriage like a magazine title.
James was not adored by Scottish nobles either, because he only chose certain favorites and gave them expensive gifts and land. Those friends were called out as "wary characters". No mention of gambling debts, but normally wary friends go hand-in-hand with some sort of debt-owed. Chances are he was taken advantage of by them financially, from a very young age, as they "oogled" at his properties.
A mistake from James, was that he didn't make peace at home with the nobles, which eventually brought him to his death.

Sadness for the People, Due to Losing their Young Monarchs

The Young Queen died at age 30 from an illness, in her nested castle.
Two yrs later James died at 36. Some say he was killed in battle, others say, he fell off his horse during battle, injured & taken into safety... only to be brutally stabbed to death by opposing rebels, the horrible rebels that were led by his own 15 yr old son.

The War Years Before James III was Killed

The years preceding James' death, were filled with political disruption and even battleships. He sided with England & then called to France for weapons, and all sorts of problems "Arose"...
The desperate nobles convinced his own son, "first-born James IV", to fight against his father, during the rebel battle, the very same battle that brought the King's death.
Elites from many other countries had also become involved,
but I'm not a "war story" verbatim-exact type of story-teller here.
Just a few facts, like he was imprisoned for a time, in his beloved Edinburgh Castle.
There was talk of his escape with bed sheets from high windows, after he either:
caused his guard to pass out from binge-drinking, or he actually killed his guard.
Therefore, it appears his last few years were troubled, with Armada-styled ships invading cities, castles burned, and his first son becoming his enemy. Not a laissez-faire lifestyle at all, rather one that was very tumultuous, stressful & uneasy
golden rose
Golden Rose

The Golden Rose

Even the Pope sent James a rare rose, which became an "unlucky" gift, like it was "the kiss of death" from Rome. Thereafter, he was further attacked, imprisoned and killed, just 2 yrs later.
Why would the Pope be mingling in Scottish Politics?
England was pushing-in for Dominion land takes, and France was involved, Navarre and other high Counts from Spain were all dabbling into the foggy Scottish Highlands. All looking for land claims, available and easy.
Burghausen castle
Edinburgh Castle

A Broken Scotland

It looks as if, James hadn't created enough supporters to maintain the border rights. Had he gone with the Lairds and nobles and respected their dominions of "chateau keeping", he would have created a region of "stability". Scottish leadership had became divisive, so much so, that it practically wooed the International takers into war.

Conclusion to his Son James IV

At the age of 15, James IV became the next King of the Scots. However, he ruled under bevies of guilt due to his fathers murder. Being pushed into leading that opposing side.
War never left his past time though, ordering the build of approx. 38 ships, an Armada to protect Scotland. 25 yrs Later, his reign ended when he was killed in battle as well.
Genealogy Notes
James II, III, IV run thru my "Thomas" line.
General Links:
Wiki: James III, King of Scotland and Margaret of Denmark.

Tuesday, July 19, 2022

Queen of France

Ottokar III King of Hungary "Bela V": Imprisoned

ottokar III of Hungary
Ottokar III King of Hungary

Ottokar... on his Way
to Hungarian Rule

The former 12-yr old ruler of Hungary, Wenceslaus III, had inherited Bohemia and at the age of 16 left Hungary... and renounced his throne away, to Ottokar.
Already 44, born in 1261, Royalty was nothing new to Ottokar, because he had already been Duke of Lower Bavaria for 22 years. Otto had even engaged in a vicious battle at Golheim, over electoral princes. Where his side, ruled by King Adolf of Nassau, died by the hands of the Albert I of Habsburgs army. Later Albert I was renamed Albert the One-Eyed due to injuries..
Ottokar was also of Hungarian royal blood. The son of Henry XIII & Elizabeth of Hungary (1236 – 24 October 1271, daughter of King Béla IV and Maria Laskarina. Most likely due to his age, he was disputed.
crown of hungary
Crown of Hungary

To be Crowned

He traveled a dangerous distance under a commoners disguise to become King. Venturing, to Buda (pest), acting and clothed like a merchant for protection because of the Hapsburg soldiers near the border.
In Buda, he was officially crowned as "King of Hungary", by the Holy Bishops of Veszprém and Csanád.
Along with being given title rule over the lands of Croatia.
Some new Silver denar coins were also minted.
ottos coin
ottos coin
While Hungary was essentially given to Ottokar in 1305, his Monarchy as "Bela V", wasn't an easy keep.
He held the title as the Hungarian King for only 4 years, with the enchanting & symbolic golden crown of Hungary "St. Stephan", from Kings of the past eras.
Charles I of hungary
Charles I
Ottokar's Opponent
& Successor to Hungary

However, during his reign, Charles I was unstoppable, and called Ottokar out as the "Anti-King"
Charles I became Otto's ousting successor.
Ambitious Charles was determined to become King, siding with nobles who preferred his methods.


Captured in Transylvania

To further his predicament, Ottokar was captured during a visit into the wealthy lordship lands of Transylvania. He was imprisoned for a year by the "Voivode of Transylvania," "Ladislaus Kán".
However, Ladislaus did not remove Ottokar from his Sovereignty though. Instead, Ladislaus merely held Ottokar, away from being able to rule as King. Leaving the status of the kingdom in limbo.

Abdication of His Throne To Charles I

Ladislaus eventually freed Ottokar, who quickly escaped away back into Bavaria. At that point, Ottokar abdicated the throne to Charles in 1308.
So, it wasn't until, 1308 that Charles actually received the status along with the "believable" King of Hungary crown. & another 10 -12 yrs until he seized Hungary by force away from regional lords, that Hungary truly became his keep.
Burghausen castle
Burghausen Castle (Ottokar's Domain)
& the Longest castle in the world

His Sparse Home-life

Born in being a Bavarian Duke, his path was set into politics. However, he lived much of his adult life without a spouse. He lost 2 infant sons and was then his wife Catherine of Habsburg died, where he then became a widow for 23 yrs.
Not until he married Agnes Glogau of Bavaria, was Otto a father again: to his daughter Agnes of Wittelsbach and Henry XV, Duke of Bavaria. Ottokar died at the age of 51, just a few years after his children were born, in the German Bavarian town of Landshut


Even with coins and an illustrious royal crown, someone can still call into question who is to be the ruler of a Kingdom.
All in all, the disfavor of Ottokar, being the son of a Duke of Bavaria, plus his own rule of Bavaria must have gone against him. Not only with his opponent Charles, but in the eyes of others.
The Hungarian nobles would have still wanted warrior leaders, Kings who looked ready to fight; like famous Kings in Hungarian history. Charles fit the "look" of a younger conquering spirit, increasing his popularity, no doubt.
In truth, most of the people didn't have a choice of which King, it could have been an 8 yr old boy or a 95 yr old man. Charles simply was naturally suited, with his "brawn", to effect himself as a capable knight, rather than being just a less active political leader. By appearing ready to fight with his armies, it would have allowed for idolization and favoritism by the people.
Genealogy Notes
Issue with his ascending children linking through from Burgandy or Naples. Some data has changed since.
Mary of Hungary's line is confirmed through Blanche D'Anjou, & later Bela IV, but Ottokar the "Anti-King" is in question if he's a real ancestor or not.
General Links:
Wiki: Otto III : Bela V
and Dukes of Bavaria

Saturday, July 16, 2022

Queen of France

Andrew II of Hungary: "The Braided King"

andrew II hungary
Andrew II King of Hungary

Manly King Andrew II, Braids & All

A leader of the wicked Crusades? Beginning with a murky tale of succession after Béla the III died.
Béla's son, Emeric, became King of Hungary and ruled for 8 years.
During which time Andrew convinced Emeric to forfeit his lands of "Dalmatia and Croatia", and title them to his name.
Then, Emeric became quite ill and died, leaving the Kingdom of Hungary to his 4-5 yr old son Ladislas the III.
Ladislas the III, died within 6 months of his "child rule", and immediately, thereafter: Andrew became King of Hungary.
andrew II hungary
Statue of Andrew II

Árpád Dynasty King at 28 Years Old

Now, if Andrew was dedicated to the "Throne", and exceedingly ambitious, he very well could have secretly ordered the death of the young boy. "A boy king?"
The chances are quite high Ladislas was poisoned.
Not much is said though, about the upstaging "all of a sudden" from Andrew.
After all, Andrew was a true descendant of Béla, just known to be pushy for land and titles with his older brother Emeric.
Therefore, thoughts can't help but to linger towards if the boy was assassinated in a quest for power.
It was power too, Andrew reigned from 1205 to 1235, 30 years as King.
He built an army of 15,000 men with horses, & countless infantry, all requiring food, housing and provisions. Andrew and his army traversed, and claimed: Halych and Lodomeria in the Rus territories after many failed battles.
Bela III
Andrew's father, Béla the III
John of Gaunt, England
being his descendant look-a-like.

To the Crusades

However, Andrew's father, Béla the III had wanted the Crusades to take hold. So, in effect Andrew eventually followed his father's orders.
The dutiful son fulfilling his destiny off to the Holy Land, the 5th historical Crusade for a military coup d'etats. He had been fighting for years prior so he may have already experienced too much sadness from war and by losing his first Queen. Not alone in this quest, Leopold of Austria, The Templars, Teutonic Knights, & The Emperor of Constantinople, John of Brienne
In Jordan and Andrew achieved only a mild success, when the Egyptian Sultan Al-Adil I, Sultan of Egypt forfeited. Andrew became more intrigued though, by the local trinkets and after a years time returned to Hungary.
Returning to Hungary, finding disquieted nobles demanding freedoms from non-paid Military duty and over-taxation.

The Golden Bull

In 1222, he decreed "the Golden Bull", to include some limits to his power, increasing nobility power in the counties, plus freeing the elites from taxation and being in the military without a hefty pay scale. Surely, he was pushed to it, the expenditure of running his kingdom was costly, constantly having to sell his lands and castle quests, in order to maintain his "powerful stance in the public eye".
By creating his "rich coup of noble friends" they were given a trump card, to look lightly upon him with favoritism in the immediate future.
The Golden Bull was essentially the same as the rich guise under to this day. Using corporate leveraging to remove themselves from being drafted, and lobbyists to increase their business powers. The free taxation in our today's time is "Golden Bull" given to certain businesses: agriculture, forestry, weaponry, gas & oil and other tax-free and tax-reduced government granted subsidies.
What a tangle of the rich to keep, since 1222.
queen gertrudes death
Queen Gertrude of Hungary
Mother of Béla the IV
Murdered by Peter

Andrew's Wives

During his campaign of Galicia in the Kingdom of Ruthenia, from the North Sea to the Black Sea. "When the cats away, the mice will play", and his Gertrude*, lost her life.
In 1213, The Lords of Hungary murdered his wife Queen Gertrude of Merania & most of her courtiers, due to her & her court, siding with the Germans. Upon his return Andrew had the murderer, "Peter, son of Töre" was executed, and Andrew left the other lords, to be named as perverts.
There was quite a bit of murderous fallout with the Germans, even between the Germans themselves at the time. The group of Lords feared a German takeover, and apparently not the wrath nor chance of death from Andrew, upon his return.
What can be said about the year 1213, a despicable number 13. Raining itself throughout history.
Three years past, and he married again, to Yolanda de Courtenay later to Beatrice d'Este in 1233.

Andrew's Age-gap Wives

  1. Queen Gertrude (Merania) was 8 yrs younger.
  2. Yolanda de Courtenay was 23 years younger.
  3. & Beatrice d'Este was 38 yrs younger.

Andrew's End

Andrew died shortly after his trip to Vienna, in 1235. At the age of 58.
In the Summer of 1235, he made a trip of demands to Austria, to retrieve indemnification costs from Duke Frederick, whose troops had recently caused damages when they raided Hungary.
Béla the IV King of Hungary
Béla the IV King of Hungary
Son of Andrew II & Gertrude

Andrew's Son: The next King of Hungary, "Béla the IV"

*During Gertrude's short life, before being murdered in the Pilis Hills, on 28 September 2013, Queen Gertrude of Merania, bore Andrews' Royal son, Béla. He became the next King of Hungary, "Béla the IV" immediately after Andrew's death. Béla, was named ruler of Hungary at the age of 29, and ruled for 35 years. A larger Army than his father, of 60,000, with many battles away from Hungary, and yet he was known more for being defeated by the Mongols.
Son of Béla III of Hungary. Andrew reigned during 1205 to 1235, 30 years. King of Jerusalem, Hungary and Croatia.
Genealogy Notes
*My ancestral Queen from Andrew's wives: Queen Gertrude.
link to wiki: Andrew II
xlsx sheet link: 10 "Andrew II" Crowns:
Mother’s Ancestry side: Baker, Thomas (4), Sevey (2), Vaux (2), Williams
or the Kings of Europe Chart: Ancestry Kings Chart